How to Raise Quail: A Seasoned Homesteader’s Guide to Raising Happy and Productive Quail

Welcome to the charming world of quail farming, where feathers meet fascination, and homesteading takes on a whole new meaning. As a homesteader, I found that raising quail is not just a hobby or a potential income source; it’s an adventure that brings joy to every corner of your backyard. Picture this – a compact space, quick maturity, and a symphony of gentle clucks echoing in the air. That’s the world of quail farming, and I’m here to guide you through it.

The California quail (Callipepla californica), also known as the California valley quail or valley quail, is a small ground dwelling bird in the New World quail family.

Choosing the Right Quail Species

As I perused the diverse universe of quail breeds, a few stars stood out for backyard homesteading. The Coturnix quail caught my attention with its friendly demeanor and prolific egg production.

Bobwhite quail, known for their sweet temperament and adaptability, also found their place in my flock. And let’s not forget the California quail, a native beauty with unique characteristics. Now, let’s weigh our options.

Bobwhite quail sitting atop fence post.

Coturnix quail, the reliable workhorse, is known for laying eggs as early as six weeks. With its pleasant nature, Bobwhite Quail is an excellent addition if you want a more interactive experience.

Common Quail (Coturnix) standing in grassland during migration

California quail, on the other hand, add a touch of native flair to your homestead. After my quail rendezvous, I found Coturnix to be the sweet spot – economical, easygoing, and highly productive.

Setting Up Your Quail Habitat

Finding the ideal spot for your quail haven is akin to discovering a hidden treasure on your homestead. It’s not just about selecting a location away from direct sunlight; it’s about creating a sanctuary that shields these petite feathered friends from the prowling eyes of predators, including crafty adversaries like foxes, raccoons, and birds of prey.

Building a Fortified Coop

Crafting your quail coop is more than just a construction project; it’s an essential part of ensuring the well-being and safety of your flock. Consider these practical aspects when building your quail haven:

Size and Space Requirements:
• Quails don’t demand palatial estates but appreciate a cozy yet well-designed space. As a rule of thumb, provide at least one square foot of coop space per quail. This amount of space ensures they have enough room to move around without feeling cramped.

Height Considerations:
• Quails, with their ground-dwelling nature, don’t require soaring heights in their coop. A lower ceiling is beneficial to prevent injuries, given their tendency to startle easily. Aim for a ceiling height of about 12 to 18 inches to maintain a secure and injury-free environment.

Ventilation and Light:
• Ensure proper ventilation to maintain a fresh, airy coop. Incorporate windows or vents with wire mesh to keep predators out while allowing a steady airflow. Additionally, provide natural or artificial lighting to mimic the day-night cycle, promoting a sense of normalcy for your quails.

Secure Locks and Wire Mesh:
• Quail coops should be akin to fortresses, equipped with secure locks and wire mesh around and beneath the coop. Wire mesh prevents burrowing invaders like rodents or digging predators from gaining access to your quail haven.

Choosing the Location:
• Consider the proximity to natural cover. When raising quail, know they feel more secure with a few hiding spots, such as shrubs or small trees. Adding shrubs provides shelter and mimics their natural habitat, reducing stress among your quail flock.

Motion-Activated Lights or Alarms:
• As an additional layer of security, consider installing motion-activated lights or alarms around the coop perimeter. These can deter nocturnal predators, adding an extra safeguard for your quail during vulnerable hours. Remember, the success of your quail haven is a combination of creature comfort and robust security. By providing a well-designed, secure coop, you ensure the happiness of your quails and establish a stronghold against potential threats in the wild.

Feeding Your Quail

Now, let’s delve deeper into the food preferences of our feathered friends in the quail universe. Quails, being ground-dwelling birds, have a unique approach to foraging. They love to scratch and peck, foraging for seeds, insects, and small invertebrates. While high-quality game bird feed forms the cornerstone of their diet, incorporating their natural foraging instincts can be rewarding.

Quails thrive on a balanced diet, typically requiring a game bird feed with around 20-28% protein content. This protein-rich diet is especially crucial during periods of high egg production, supporting optimal health and robust eggshell formation. Additionally, supplementing their diet with crushed oyster shells ensures they get calcium for strong eggshells.

Now, let’s address the elephant in the room – table scraps. While quails are not as voracious garbage disposals as chickens, they enjoy certain kitchen scraps. Fresh fruits and vegetables like leafy greens, carrots, and berries can be occasional treats. However, be cautious with acidic or salty foods, which can upset their delicate digestive systems. Remember, moderation is key; table scraps should complement, not replace, their primary diet.

And now, the ever-controversial topic – feeding quails their own eggs. Yes, you can do it. Crushed or boiled eggs can be an excellent source of protein for quails. It’s a bit like recycling nutrients back into their system. However, take precautions to avoid creating egg-eating habits. Ensure eggs are thoroughly cooked or finely crushed to prevent the quails from associating them with their fresh, unbroken counterparts.

Now, onto the elixir of life – water. Quails are discerning drinkers, and fresh water should always be available. Ensure that you clean their water containers to prevent bacteria buildup, ensuring a hydration station that’s as pristine as it is essential.

Northern Bobwhite covey drinking

So, my homesteading companion, feeding your quails is not just about meeting their dietary needs but also about embracing their natural foraging instincts and navigating the nuances of their palate. As you embark on this culinary journey with your quails, remember that a well-fed quail is a happy quail, ready to grace your homestead with its vibrant presence.

Health and Wellness When Raising Quail

Becoming a vigilant health custodian is key to sustaining a flourishing flock. While quails are generally robust, understanding and identifying common health issues is your first line of defense.

Respiratory Infections:
• One of the frequent challenges quail may face is respiratory infections. Symptoms include wheezing, nasal discharge, and lethargy. If you notice the signs above, isolate the affected birds promptly. A well-ventilated coop, cleanliness, and a balanced diet can help prevent respiratory issues.

Egg-Laying Problems:
• Sometimes, quails may encounter difficulties in the egg laying department. Soft or misshapen eggs can indicate calcium deficiency, while egg-binding, where an egg gets stuck inside the hen, can be a serious concern. Ensure a calcium-rich diet, with access to crushed oyster shells, to promote strong eggshells and prevent binding. If you suspect egg-binding, consult a vet for guidance.

Coccidiosis, though less common, can be severe if left unchecked. It’s a parasitic disease affecting the intestinal tract, often caused by unsanitary conditions. Symptoms include lethargy, bloody droppings, and reduced food intake. Maintaining a clean environment, proper sanitation, and avoiding overcrowding can minimize the risk.

Odd Behavior and Stress:
• Quails are masters at hiding signs of distress, so closely observing their behavior is crucial. Unusual quietness, excessive pecking, or changes in eating habits can signal stress. Environmental factors, like sudden loud noises or overcrowding, may also contribute to stress. A well-designed coop layout, with secluded spots and a calm atmosphere, can alleviate stress.

While these are potential challenges, regular health check-ups and vaccinations significantly reduce the risk of severe issues. Consult a veterinarian specializing in poultry to establish a proactive health plan for your quail flock. Remember, your observations are your best tools – keenly watch your quails, and you’ll be well-equipped to keep them in prime health, ensuring a happy and thriving homestead.

Breeding Quail

Decision-Making Process:
Before embarking on the journey of breeding quail, consider your goals and resources. Do you aim for a self-sustaining flock, or are you looking to increase your quail numbers for commercial purposes? Understanding your objectives will guide your breeding decisions.

Baby quail on a poultry farm

Quail Breeding Superstar Checklist:
What qualities make a quail a breeding superstar? Look for traits like good temperament, consistent egg-laying, and overall health. A robust breeding quail should exhibit vitality and sociability. Select individuals with a history of reliable egg production and an amicable nature to ensure a harmonious and productive quail flock.

Incubation and Hatching Tips:
Now, onto the magic of hatching those tiny quail feet. Regarding incubation, you have two primary options – letting a broody quail handle the task or using an artificial incubator. If you choose the broody route, provide a quiet, secluded spot for the brooding quail, ensuring minimal disturbances.

For those opting for an incubator, maintaining optimal conditions is crucial. Keep the temperature steady at around 99.5°F (37.5°C) and ensure proper humidity levels. Regularly turning the eggs promotes even development. When the eggs are due to hatch, create a cozy, secure environment. A brooding area with a heat lamp, bedding material, and easy access to food and water is essential. Monitor the chicks closely in their early days, ensuring they eat, drink, and stay warm. Understanding the intricacies of incubation and hatching is like holding the key to a successful quail family reunion.

Whether you let a dedicated quail parent handle the job or take on the role of an incubation maestro, witnessing those tiny quail feet taking their first steps is an unparalleled joy in the homesteader’s journey. As you embark on your quail breeding adventure, remember that it’s not just about reproduction; it’s about nurturing a new generation of vibrant, healthy quails that will contribute to the charm and productivity of your homestead.

Egg Production and Collection

Encouraging and maximizing egg production is every homesteader’s dream. On average, a single quail can lay around 250 to 300 eggs a year, making them incredibly prolific layers. Now, let’s talk size – quail eggs are a petite delight compared to their chicken counterparts, typically measuring around one-third the size.

Fresh quail eggs in a bowl on a dark wooden background, rustic style.

Don’t let their small stature fool you; these little orbs pack a punch in flavor and nutritional value. Ensuring a balanced diet, providing proper lighting, and maintaining a stress-free environment are the keys to a quail’s prolific egg-laying capabilities. High-quality game bird feed, with the right balance of protein and nutrients, will keep your quail content and productive. Supplemental lighting during shorter days can mimic longer daylight hours, encouraging consistent laying throughout the year.

When collecting and storing quail eggs, think of it as handling delicate treasures. Gently retrieve them from the nesting area, being cautious not to crack the fragile shells. Store them in a cool place, ideally in a refrigerator set at around 45°F (7°C), to maintain freshness. Remember, quail eggs have a thicker shell membrane, making them slightly more durable than chicken eggs.

As a bonus, let’s dive into the culinary delights that quail eggs offer. Quail eggs’ rich flavor and creamy texture make them versatile ingredients in various dishes. Try them boiled and sprinkled with a pinch of salt for a simple yet delicious snack. For something more elaborate, consider a classic Scotch quail egg recipe – a delightful blend of seasoned sausage meat encasing a quail egg, coated in breadcrumbs, and fried to golden perfection. This culinary masterpiece is a treat for your taste buds and a great way to showcase the exquisite nature of quail eggs.

Remember, the quail’s bounty goes beyond the coop; it extends to your kitchen, where these petite eggs can elevate your culinary creations to new heights. So, indulge in the delicacy of quail eggs, and let your homesteading journey reach new culinary horizons.

Legal Considerations and Ethical Practices of Raising Quail

Legal Landscape:
Before you embark on your quail farming adventure, acquaint yourself with your region’s legal requirements governing quail ownership. Different areas may have specific regulations regarding the number of quail you can keep, zoning restrictions, and even permits or licenses. Research local and national laws to ensure compliance, as failure to do so may result in fines or legal complications.

Permits and Applications:
In some regions, keeping quail might require permits or specific applications. Check with local agricultural authorities or environmental agencies to understand the necessary paperwork. This step is crucial to avoid legal issues and ensure your quail farming endeavors align with regulatory standards.

Ethical Considerations:
Beyond legal requirements, ethical considerations should be at the forefront of your quail farming philosophy. Treat your quail with respect and care, providing them with a living environment that prioritizes their well-being. Consider not just the physical needs of your quail but also their psychological and social needs. Quails are social creatures; keeping them in small, compatible groups ensures a happier and healthier flock.

Quails and eggs in a cage on a farm

Sustainable and Humane Practices:
Embrace sustainable and humane practices in your quail farming journey. These practices involve providing a comfortable and clean living environment, ensuring access to proper nutrition, and implementing practices that minimize environmental impact. Opt for eco-friendly bedding materials, practice responsible waste management, and explore energy-efficient solutions for your quail coop.

In addition to providing proper care, consider the life cycle of your quail, from breeding to eventual culling, if you’re raising quail for meat. Make decisions that prioritize ethical treatment throughout their lives. By combining legal adherence with ethical practices, you contribute to your quail’s welfare and positively impact the broader farming community. Your quail and conscience will thank you, and your homestead will thrive as a sustainable and responsible haven for these charming birds.

Challenges and Solutions

Now, let’s get into the nitty-gritty of quail farming – the challenges and their seasoned solutions.

Challenge 1: Unpredictable Weather
As homesteaders, we know Mother Nature can throw curveballs. Harsh weather, especially during different seasons, can stress our quail. The solution? Ensure your quail coop is well-insulated, with proper summer ventilation and heating for winters. Offering additional shelter during extreme weather, such as windbreaks or shade, can also shield our quail from the whims of Mother Nature.

Challenge 2: Predator Encounters
Predators are crafty, but we’re craftier. Implementing a multilayered defense system can deter most predators. Think buried wire mesh to prevent burrowing, secure locks on coop doors, and even motion-activated lights or alarms for added security. Our quail deserve Fort Knox-level protection, don’t you think?

Challenge 3: Maintaining Egg Production in Winter
Winter can be tricky for egg production. Keep the quail coop warm and cozy, ensuring they don’t get too cold. Consider supplemental lighting to mimic longer days, encouraging our quail to continue laying. And don’t forget, a well-balanced diet during winter is like a cozy blanket for our quail – it keeps them warm and productive.

The quail farmer’s survival kit is to tackle challenges head-on, armed with knowledge and a touch of homesteader ingenuity.


Our journey unfolds in the enchanting world of raising quail, where feathers meet fascination, and the homesteader’s heart finds a new rhythm. From carefully selecting quail species – the charming Coturnix, the sweet-natured Bobwhite, and the native beauty of California quail – to creating a secure haven that shields our delicate companions from lurking predators, every step is a dance of wisdom and care. Feeding our quails becomes a culinary journey, blending high-quality game bird feed with the joy of embracing their natural foraging instincts.

California Quail foraging from Jonah Svensson on Vimeo.

As we explore the nuances of quail health, from preventing respiratory infections to addressing egg-laying challenges, we become vigilant custodians, ensuring a flourishing and happy flock. Breeding quail is not just about reproduction; it’s a celebration of life on the homestead. With a checklist of superstar traits and incubation tips that open the door to a world of tiny quail feet, we usher in a new generation, vibrant and full of potential.

Egg production becomes a homesteader’s dream, with quails generously laying petite delights. From encouraging prolific laying through balanced diets and supplemental lighting to storing these treasures delicately, we unlock the culinary delights of quail eggs, elevating our kitchen creations.

So, fellow homesteader, as you embark on your quail farming adventure, may your coop be a sanctuary, your feed be abundant, and your quails be happy cluckers echoing in the symphony of a flourishing homestead.

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Chris Lesley Bio Picture
Chris Lesley has been Raising Chickens for over 20 years and is a fourth generation chicken keeper. She can remember being a young child when her grandad first taught her how to hold and care for chickens. She also holds a certificate in Animal Behavior and Welfare and is interested in backyard chicken health and care.

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